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電子煙利弊大論戰:到底對健康有益or有害?

kira86 于2018-10-18發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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電子煙對健康到底有益還是有害呢?大眾對電子煙是何看法呢?這篇調查告訴你。

 

 (文章來源:美國《醫學快訊》網站
原文地址:https://m.medicalxpress.com/news/2018-10-e-cigs-debate-health-risksbenefits.html

原標題:E-cigs continue to spark debate over health risks/benefits

電子煙好壞大論戰

October 10, 2018 by Amy Norton, Healthday Reporter

艾米·諾頓(Amy Norton) 2018-10-10

(HealthDay)—With sales of electronic cigarettes skyrocketing, Americans remain divided on whether the devices are a boon or a threat to public health.

(HealthDay)——雖然電子煙的銷量激增,但美國對電子煙是公眾健康的“福音”還是“危害”分歧很大。

That's the main finding of a new HealthDay/Harris Poll that surveyed over 2,000 adults on their e-cigarette views.

之所以得出這一結論,是因為HealthDay/哈里斯民調收集了2000多位成年人對電子煙的看法。

Vaping has long been promoted as a way to help smokers kick the habit—offering them a route to get nicotine without the carcinogens in tobacco smoke.

長久以來,蒸汽電子煙都作為戒斷煙癮的一種手段推而廣之,使用電子煙的好處就是可以避免吸入致癌物。

But e-cigarettes aren't harmless, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other health authorities. There's particular concern about young people vaping—in part, because nicotine can harm brain development, which continues until about age 25.

但美國疾控中心(CDC)和其他健康權威機構認為電子煙并非100%安全。 他們尤其關切蒸汽電子煙對青年人的影響,因為尼古丁會對大腦發育造成不良影響,而大腦完全發育大概在25歲左右。

In the poll, most adults did have misgivings about e-cigarettes: 85 percent said they were worried that the long-term health effects of the devices are unknown; and 83 percent were at least "somewhat" concerned about teenagers using e-cigarettes.

在這項民調中,大部分成年人對電子煙確實心存顧忌。 85%的人稱電子煙對健康的長期影響還不得而知;另有83%表示了對青少年使用電子煙的擔憂。

In fact, 43 percent of adults felt that e-cigarettes are actually more dangerous than traditional cigarettes.

事實上,43%的成年人覺得電子煙比傳統卷煙更危險。

On the flip side, about as many people (41 percent) viewed e-cigarettes as "healthier" than traditional cigarettes. And 42 percent rated them as an "excellent way" to quit.

反過來講,約有41%的人認為電子煙比傳統卷煙更安全健康。 42%的人甚至將它評為戒斷煙癮的“最佳方式”。

It all adds up to differing views, and possibly confusion, about e-cigarettes and their health effects.

這種種結果只會讓公眾對電子煙極其對健康的影響更加困惑。

There are, in fact, many unknowns.

電子煙有太多的未知等待探索。

Unfortunately, at this time we have no scientific evidence on the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes, especially given the unknown effects of the aerosols and flavorings in e-cigarette liquids, said Dr. Thanh-Huyen Vu, a research assistant professor at Northwestern University in Chicago.

芝加哥西北大學研究助理教授于青玄(Thanh-Huyen Vu)博士稱:“很遺憾,我們還未掌握到科學的證據以驗證電子煙對健康的長期影響,尤其是煙油中氣霧和香料對健康的影響。”

However, researchers know plenty about nicotine.

但研究人員對尼古丁卻再熟悉不過了。

The drug "is well known to be addictive and toxic, and to have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and on health in general," Vu said.

于博士說:“眾所周知,尼古丁是一種有毒且會上癮的物質,對整體健康以及心血管都有不良影響。”

And that's enough to raise concerns about teenagers' e-cigarette use, she added.

她說這已足夠引起公眾對青少年使用電子煙的擔憂。

In addition, Vu said, studies have found that teenagers and young adults who use e-cigarettes are more likely than non-users to take up smoking.

于博士還說,已經有研究發現使用電子煙的青少年和年輕人更容易染上煙癮。

And what about adults who use e-cigarettes in place of traditional ones?

那那些使用電子煙完全替代傳統卷煙的人現在怎么樣了呢?

The devices do allow people to avoid the chemicals they would inhale from burning tobacco, Vu noted.

于博士也注意到,電子煙確認可以避免使用者吸入煙草燃燒釋放的化學物。

It's been speculated that using them may be associated with better health outcomes, compared to traditional cigarette smoking, she said.

她還說到:“相比傳統卷煙,使用電子煙對健康更有利,這一猜測一直存在。”

But again, Vu pointed out, there's the nicotine and its own health effects.

然而于博士指出電子煙含有尼古丁,尼古丁對健康的影響不言而喻。

E-cigarettes come in different forms, with some emulating traditional cigarettes or pipes. One highly popular brand, called Juul, is shaped like a USB flash drive, and reportedly accounts for one-third of e-cigarette sales in the United States.

電子煙形狀各異,有些似傳統香煙,有些似煙斗;其中 Juul是最受歡迎的一個牌子,外形類似USB,據報道它的銷量占美國電子煙市場的三分之一。

Last week, the CDC reported that Juul sales shot up 641 percent between 2016 and 2017. Researchers called the trend worrying because the devices have a particularly high nicotine content and are popular with young people.

上個星期,CDC的報告指出Juul在2016和2017年間的銷量暴漲641%。研究人員稱這一趨勢讓人擔憂,因為電子煙的尼古丁含量很高,在年輕人中尤其受歡迎。

No teenager should be vaping, said Gregory Conley, president of the American Vaping Association—referring to a common term for e-cigarette use.

美國蒸汽煙協會(American Vaping Association)會長格雷戈里·康利(Gregory Conley)認為青少年就不應該使用蒸汽電子煙。

However, Conley disputed the notion that e-cigarettes are driving kids to smoke. As researchers from the University of Buffalo recently argued, teen smoking has continued to decline at the same time e-cigarette use has risen.

然而,康利并不認為電子煙和青少年兒童吸煙有必然聯系。 最近,布法羅分校的研究人員辯稱電子煙的引入反而使青少年煙民數量降低了。

Conley questioned the poll finding that 43 percent of people think e-cigarettes are more dangerous than traditional cigarettes. He said past surveys have found less fear around the devices.

同時,康利也對“43%的人認為電子煙比傳統卷煙更危險”這一民調結論持質疑態度。 他說過去的所有調查都指向電子煙危害小。

But if people do think vaping is worse than smoking, Conley blamed misleading messages from certain researchers and media stories.

但如果大眾認為蒸汽電子煙比吸煙更糟糕,那么康利就該指責某些研究人員和社交媒體故意給公眾傳達錯誤的信息了。

As long as vaping is helping smokers quit, it will bring public health benefits, he said.

他說:“只要蒸汽電子煙有助于戒斷煙癮,它就對公眾健康有利。”

Conley pointed to research evidence of that: Last year, a study at Georgetown University estimated that up to 6.6 million smokers would live "substantially longer" if they replaced their traditional cigarettes with e-cigarettes.

康利拿出去年喬治城大學的研究,這項研究證明如果煙民們都從傳統卷煙轉而電子煙,則將有高達660萬的煙民的壽命會更長。

And a 2016 report from the Royal College of Physicians concluded that e-cigarettes—when used by smokers aiming to quit—are "likely" to benefit public health.

英國皇家內科醫學會(Royal College of Physicians)2016年的一份報告指出如果那些決心戒斷煙癮的煙民使用電子煙,則很可能給公共健康帶來巨大的效益。

Still, Vu said that based on studies so far, it's unclear how effective the devices really are in helping smokers ultimately quit. "E-cigarette use is still new, so it will take time to prove," she added.

然后,于博士說基于目前的研究,電子煙對戒斷煙癮的效用還不明確。 “電子煙仍是新興事物,需要時間去驗證它的長期效益。”

This HealthDay/Harris Poll was conducted online within the United States between Sept. 25-27 2018, among 2,008 U.S. adults (aged 18 and over). This online survey is not based on a probability sample and therefore no estimate of theoretical sampling error can be calculated.

這項民調于2018年9月25至27號采用在線調查的形式進行,參與調查的人數達2008人(年齡大于18歲)。 這項在線調查并非基于概率抽樣,因此理論上不存在抽樣誤差。

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